Reduction of Greenhouse Gases Emissions from Ships – Ammonia as Fuel of the Future

Authors

  • A. Ubowska Zachodniopomorski Uniwersytet Technologiczny w Szczecinie, al. Piastów 41, 71-065 Szczecin, Wydział Techniki Morskiej i Transportu, Katedra Inżynierii Bezpieczeństwa i Energetyki

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26408/108.12

Keywords:

ammonia, fuel, greenhouse gases, emission reduction, ships

Abstract

The article presents the state of knowledge regarding emissions of greenhouse gases in shipping. It indicates technical solutions to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, in accordance with the plan adopted by the IMO. One of the possibilities is the use of ammonia as fuel in internal combustion engines or in fuel cells. These solutions are reflected in contemporary projects of vessels.

References

Anish, W., 2017, Top 5 Zero Emission Ship Concepts of the Shipping World, https://www.marine¬insight.¬com/green-shipping/top-5-zero-emission-ship-concepts/ (dostęp: 12.09.2018).

[2] Bergman, J., 2018, MAN: Ammonia Marine Fuel ‘Unlikely’ Before 2030, https://www.mpropul¬sion.com/¬news/view,man-ammonia-marine-fuel-unlikely-before-2030_53752.htm (dostęp 20.08.2018).

[3] Brown, T., 2018, Ammonia as a Renewable Fuel for the Maritime Industry, http://www.ammonia¬ener¬gy.¬org/¬ammo¬nia-as-a-renewable-fuel-for-the-maritime-industry/ (dostęp 13.09.2018).

[4] C&F, 2018, A New Way of Fueling the Marine Industry, International Cruise & Ferry Review, Spring/Summer, s. 130–131.

[5] Ceran, B., 2014, Charakterystyki eksploatacyjne stosu ogniw paliwowych typu PEMFC, Polityka Energetyczna, vol. 17, nr 3, s. 135-146.

[6] Cheddie, D., 2012, Ammonia as a Hydrogen Source for Fuel Cells: a Review, w: Minic, D. (ed.), Hydrogen Energy, IntechOpen, Rijeka.

[7] C-Job (Niels de Vries), 2018, Ammonia as a Renewable Fuel for the Maritime Industry, NH3 Event, https://i1.wp.com/www.ammoniaenergy.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/C-Job-fuel-system-configuration-5.png (dostęp 13.09.2018).

[8] Cornelius, W., Huellmantel, L.W., Mitchell, H.R., 1965, Ammonia as an Engine Fuel, SAE Technical Paper 650052.

[9] Crolius, S., 2016, Ammonia-Powered Internal Combustion Engines, http://www.ammoniaenergy.org/¬ammo¬nia-powered-internal-combustion-engines/ (dostęp 3.09.2018).

[10] IMO, 2010, IMO Activities on Control of GHG Emissions from Ships, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org¬/-presentation/7ada/4db366e6977df77a692aea41176003d135b7.pdf(dostęp 20.08.2018).

[11] IMO, 2015, Third IMO GHG Study 2014, International Maritime Organization, London.

[12] IMO, 2018, Initial IMO Strategy on Reduction of GHG Emissions from Ships, Resolution MEPC. 304(72), Adopted on 13 April 2018, International Maritime Organization, London.

[13] Jurdziński, M., 2011, Ocena metod i możliwości zmniejszenia zużycia paliwa oraz emisji gazów na statkach morskich, Prace Wydziału Nawigacyjnego Akademii Morskiej w Gdyni, nr 26, s. 19–32.

[14] Kowalski, J., 2018, Analiza możliwości ograniczenia emisji gazów cieplarnianych ze statków dalekomorskich, Logistyka, nr 3, s. 49–53.

[15] Lan, R., Tao, S., 2014, Ammonia as a Suitable Fuel for Fuel Cells, Frontiers in Energy Research, vol. 2, no. 35, s. 1–4.

[16] Liu, H., Wang, H., Shen, J., Sun, Y., Liu, Z., 2008, Preparation, Characterization and Activities of the Nano-sized Ni/SBA-15 Catalyst for Producing COx-Free Hydrogen from Ammonia, Applied Catalysis A: General, vol. 337, s. 138–147.

[17] MARPOL, 2015, Międzynarodowa Konwencja o Zapobieganiu Zanieczyszczaniu Morza przez Statki 1973/1978, tekst jednolity.

[18] Sikora, M., Bednarski, M., Lasocki, J., Orliński, P., 2017, Ammonia as a Fuel for Spark-Ignition Engines, Proceedings of the Institute of Vehicles, vol. 5, no. 114, s. 55–61.

[19] Starkman, E.S., Newhall, H.K., Sutton, R., Maguire, T., Farbar, L., 1967, Ammonia as a Spark Ignition Engine Fuel: Theory and Application, SAE Transactions, no. 75, s. 765–784.

[20] Thaker, A., Mathev, M., Hasib, N., Herringer, N., 2015, A Review of Ammonia Fuel Cells, 10.13140/RG.2.1.1700.7129.

[21] Vitse, F., Cooper, M., Botte, G.G., 2005, On the Use of Ammonia Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 142, no. 1–2, s. 18–26.

[22] Zamfirescu, C., Dincer, I., 2009, Ammonia as a Green Fuel and Hydrogen Source for Vehicular Applications, Fuel Processing Technology, no. 90, s. 729–737.

Usuń [1] Anish, W., 2017, Top 5 Zero Emission Ship Concepts of the Shipping World, https://www.marine¬insight.¬com/green-shipping/top-5-zero-emission-ship-concepts/ (dostęp: 12.09.2018).

[2] Bergman, J., 2018, MAN: Ammonia Marine Fuel ‘Unlikely’ Before 2030, https://www.mpropul¬sion.com/¬news/view,man-ammonia-marine-fuel-unlikely-before-2030_53752.htm (dostęp 20.08.2018).

[3] Brown, T., 2018, Ammonia as a Renewable Fuel for the Maritime Industry, http://www.ammonia¬ener¬gy.¬org/¬ammo¬nia-as-a-renewable-fuel-for-the-maritime-industry/ (dostęp 13.09.2018).

[4] C&F, 2018, A New Way of Fueling the Marine Industry, International Cruise & Ferry Review, Spring/Summer, s. 130–131.

[5] Ceran, B., 2014, Charakterystyki eksploatacyjne stosu ogniw paliwowych typu PEMFC, Polityka Energetyczna, vol. 17, nr 3, s. 135-146.

[6] Cheddie, D., 2012, Ammonia as a Hydrogen Source for Fuel Cells: a Review, w: Minic, D. (ed.), Hydrogen Energy, IntechOpen, Rijeka.

[7] C-Job (Niels de Vries), 2018, Ammonia as a Renewable Fuel for the Maritime Industry, NH3 Event, https://i1.wp.com/www.ammoniaenergy.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/C-Job-fuel-system-configuration-5.png (dostęp 13.09.2018).

[8] Cornelius, W., Huellmantel, L.W., Mitchell, H.R., 1965, Ammonia as an Engine Fuel, SAE Technical Paper 650052.

[9] Crolius, S., 2016, Ammonia-Powered Internal Combustion Engines, http://www.ammoniaenergy.org/¬ammo¬nia-powered-internal-combustion-engines/ (dostęp 3.09.2018).

[10] IMO, 2010, IMO Activities on Control of GHG Emissions from Ships, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org¬/-presentation/7ada/4db366e6977df77a692aea41176003d135b7.pdf(dostęp 20.08.2018).

[11] IMO, 2015, Third IMO GHG Study 2014, International Maritime Organization, London.

[12] IMO, 2018, Initial IMO Strategy on Reduction of GHG Emissions from Ships, Resolution MEPC. 304(72), Adopted on 13 April 2018, International Maritime Organization, London.

[13] Jurdziński, M., 2011, Ocena metod i możliwości zmniejszenia zużycia paliwa oraz emisji gazów na statkach morskich, Prace Wydziału Nawigacyjnego Akademii Morskiej w Gdyni, nr 26, s. 19–32.

[14] Kowalski, J., 2018, Analiza możliwości ograniczenia emisji gazów cieplarnianych ze statków dalekomorskich, Logistyka, nr 3, s. 49–53.

[15] Lan, R., Tao, S., 2014, Ammonia as a Suitable Fuel for Fuel Cells, Frontiers in Energy Research, vol. 2, no. 35, s. 1–4.

[16] Liu, H., Wang, H., Shen, J., Sun, Y., Liu, Z., 2008, Preparation, Characterization and Activities of the Nano-sized Ni/SBA-15 Catalyst for Producing COx-Free Hydrogen from Ammonia, Applied Catalysis A: General, vol. 337, s. 138–147.

[17] MARPOL, 2015, Międzynarodowa Konwencja o Zapobieganiu Zanieczyszczaniu Morza przez Statki 1973/1978, tekst jednolity.

[18] Sikora, M., Bednarski, M., Lasocki, J., Orliński, P., 2017, Ammonia as a Fuel for Spark-Ignition Engines, Proceedings of the Institute of Vehicles, vol. 5, no. 114, s. 55–61.

[19] Starkman, E.S., Newhall, H.K., Sutton, R., Maguire, T., Farbar, L., 1967, Ammonia as a Spark Ignition Engine Fuel: Theory and Application, SAE Transactions, no. 75, s. 765–784.

[20] Thaker, A., Mathev, M., Hasib, N., Herringer, N., 2015, A Review of Ammonia Fuel Cells, 10.13140/RG.2.1.1700.7129.

[21] Vitse, F., Cooper, M., Botte, G.G., 2005, On the Use of Ammonia Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 142, no. 1–2, s. 18–26.

[22] Zamfirescu, C., Dincer, I., 2009, Ammonia as a Green Fuel and Hydrogen Source for Vehicular Applications, Fuel Processing Technology, no. 90, s. 729–737.

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Published

2018-02-28

How to Cite

Ubowska, A. (2018). Reduction of Greenhouse Gases Emissions from Ships – Ammonia as Fuel of the Future. Scientific Journal of Gdynia Maritime University, (108), 143–152. https://doi.org/10.26408/108.12

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Articles