The Influence of Border Rejections and Official Controls on the Market on Alert Notifications in the RASFF

Authors

  • M. Pigłowski Gdynia Maritime University, Morska 81-87, 81-225 Gdynia, Poland, Faculty of Entrepreneurship and Quality Science, Department of Commodity and Quality Management

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26408/106.01

Keywords:

Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF), alert notifications, official controls, border rejections, multiple regression

Abstract

The Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) was created in 1979 and allows for quick response to risks for public health. Alert notifications within the RASFF are sent when the product, which presents a serious risk, is already on the market and a rapid action is required. The explicit increase of alert notifications can be noticed since 1999 and particularly since 2003/2004, when official controls on the market began to be noted. While a decrease of alert notifications can be observed since 2008, when border rejections in the RASFF began to be noted. The influence of border rejections and official controls on the market (as two variables) on the number of alert notifications in the RASFF in 1999-2014 was examined with regard to products categories, hazards categories and the European Union (EU) countries, using multiple regression. In the case of the EU countries also the influence of additional variables was examined: the number of food audits, import of food, drinks and tobacco, average total population and total agriculture production of food in the gross production value. The variable official controls on the market was statistically significant and the relationship was very high or high in case of: bivalve molluscs and products thereof, dietetic food, food supplements, fortified food, fish and fish products, herbs and spices and soups, broths, sauces and condiments (products categories) and: allergens, composition, food additives and flavourings, heavy metals, migration, mycotoxins and pathogenic micro-organism (hazards categories). The variable number of border rejections was statistically significant and the relationship was very high or high in case of: dietetic food, food supplements, fortified food (products categories) and: allergens, composition, food additives and flavourings and mycotoxins (hazards categories). In the case of the EU countries the very high or high relationship was not found in models with the two variables and was high in case of France and Latvia in models with six variables. It can be assumed that variability of the number of alert notifications in the RASFF (especially within the EU countries) also can depend on other factors, such as: the amount of food on the market, the scope of food control, the level of preparedness of controllers or movement of people. However, it is difficult to quantify these factors (and take as variables) or the adopted variables would cause collinearity.

References

Anacleto, P., Maulvault, A.L., Nunes, M.L., Carvalho, M.L., Rosa, R., Marques, A., 2015, Effects of Depuration on Metal Levels and Health Status of Bivalve Molluscs, Food Control, vol. 47, pp. 493–501.

[2] Banach, J.L., Stratakou, I., Van der Fels-Klerx, H.J., Den Beste, H.M.W., Zwietering, M.H., 2016, European Alerting and Monitoring Data as Inputs for the Risk Assessment of Microbiological and Chemical Hazards in Spices and Herbs, Food Control, vol. 69, pp. 237–249.

[3] Boxman, I.L.A., 2010, Human Enteric Viruses Occurrence in Shellfish from European Markets, Food and Environmental Virology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 156–166.

[4] Campone, L., Piccinelli, A.L., Celano, R., Russo, M., Valdés, A., Ibáñez, C., Rastrelli, L., 2015, A Fully Automated Method for Simultaneous Determination of Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin A in Dried Fruits by Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Online Solid-phase Extraction Cleanup Coupled to Ultra-High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 407, no. 10, pp. 2899–2911.

[5] Dabbene, F., Gay, P., Tortia, C., 2014, Traceability Issues in Food Supply Chain Management: A Review, Biosystems Engineering, vol. 120, pp. 65–80.

[6] D'Amico, P., Armani, A., Castigliego, L., Sheng, G., Gianfaldoni, D., Guidi, A., 2014, Seafood Traceability Issues in Chinese Food Business Activities in the Light of the European Provisions, Food Control, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 7–13.

[7] De Silva, S.S., 2012, Aquaculture: A Newly Emergent Food Production Sector – and Perspectives of its Impacts on Biodiversity and Conservation, Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 3187–3220.

[8] Delcour, I., Rademaker, M., Jacxsens, L., De Win, J., De Baets, B., Spanoghe, P., 2015, A Risk-Based Pesticide Residue Monitoring Tool to Prioritize the Sampling of Fresh Produce, Food Control, vol. 50, pp. 690–698.

[9] European Commission, 2009, Commission Regulation (EC) No 669/2009 of 24 July 2009 implementing Regulation (EC) No 882/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the increased level of official controls on imports of certain feed and food of non-animal origin and amending Decision 2006/504/EC, OJ L 194, 25.7.2009, pp. 11–21.

[10] European Commission, 2011, Commission Regulation (EU) No 16/2011 of 10 January 2011 laying down implementing measures for the Rapid alert system for food and feed, OJ L 6, 11.1.2011, pp. 7–10.

[11] European Commission, 2014, Food and Veterinary Office. Work Programme 2015, European Union, Brussels.

[12] European Commission, 2015a, Eurostat, viewed 6 May 2015, http://ec.europa.eu/euro¬stat/da¬ta/¬da¬ta¬base.

[13] European Commission, 2015b, Food and Veterinary Office (FVO), viewed 6 May 2015, http://ec.europa.eu/food/fvo/ir_search_en.cfm.

[14] European Commission, 2015c, Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF), viewed 16 January 2015, http://ec.europa.eu/food/food/rapidalert/index_en.htm.

[15] European Parliament and Council, 2002, Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety, OJ L 31, 1.2.2002, pp. 1–24.

[16] European Parliament and Council, 2004a, Regulation (EC) No 854/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 laying down specific rules for the organisation of official controls on products of animal origin intended for human consumption, OJ L 139, 30.4.2004, pp. 206–320.

[17] European Parliament and Council, 2004b, Regulation (EC) No 882/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on official controls performed to ensure the verification of compliance with feed and food law, animal health and animal welfare rules, OJ L 165, 30.4.2004, pp. 1–141.

[18] Figueroa, B.E., 2008, Are More Restrictive Food Cadmium Standards Justifiable Health Safety Measures or Opportunistic Barriers to Trade? An Answer from Economics and Public Health, Science of The Total Environment, vol. 389, no. 1, pp. 1–9.

[19] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Statistics Division, 2015, Faostat, viewed 30 January 2015, http://faostat3.fao.org/download/q/qv/e.

[20] García-Cela, E., Ramos, A.J., Sanchis, V., Marin, S., 2012, Emerging Risk Management Metrics in Food Safety: FSO, PO. How do They Apply to the Mycotoxin Hazard?Food Control, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 797–808.

[21] He, J., 2015, A Review of Chinese Fish Trade Involving the Development and Limitations of Food Safety Strategy, Ocean & Coastal Management, vol. 116, pp. 150–161.

[22] Hoffbauer, J., Remm, K., Lehmensiek, O., 2012, Das europäische Schnellwarnsystem RASFF: Erkenntnisse und Trends, Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 313–325.

[23] Jami, M., Ghanbari, M., Zunabovic, M., Domig, K.J., Kneifel, W., 2014, Listeria monocytogenes in Aquatic Food Products – A Review, Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 798–813.

[24] Jansen, W., Grabowski, N., Gerulat, B., Klein, G., 2015, Food Safety Hazards and Microbiological Zoonoses in European Meat Imports Detected in Border Inspection in the Period 2008–2013, Zoonoses and Public Health, viewed 16 July 2015, http://onlinelibra¬ry.wi¬ley.¬com/doi/¬10.1111/zph.12204/pdf.

[25] Kleter, G.A., Prandini, A., Filippi, L., Marvin, H.J.P., 2009, Identification of Potentially Emerging Food Safety Issues by Analysis of Reports Published by the European Community’s Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) during a Four-year Period, Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 932–950.

[26] Little, D.C., Bush, S.R., Belton, B., Phuong, N.T., Young, J.A., Murray, F.J., 2012, Whitefish Wars: Pangasius, Politics and Consumer Confusion in Europe, Marine Policy, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 738–745.

[27] Maleszka, A., 2009, Europejski system nadzoru nad bezpieczeństwem żywności RASFF w Europie w latach 2002–2007 (Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed RASFF in Europe in 2002–2007), Problemy Jakości, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 11–15.

[28] Maleszka, A., Matuszak, L., 2008, Funkcjonowanie systemu RASFF w Unii Europejskiej i w Polsce (The Functioning of the RASFF System in the European Union and in Poland), in: Świderski A. (ed.) Problematyka normalizacji, jakości i kodyfikacji w aspekcie integracji z NATO i UE (The Issue of Standardization, Quality and Codification in Terms of Integration with NATO and the EU), CCJ, Warsaw, pp. 93–102.

[29] Marvin, H.J.P., Kleter, G.A., Van der Fels-Klerx, H.J., Noordam, M.Y., Franz, E., Willems, D.J.M., Boxall, A., 2013, Proactive Systems for Early Warning of Potential Impacts of Natural Disasters on Food Safety: Climate-Change-Induced Extreme Events as Case in Point, Food Control, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 444–456.

[30] Matuszak, L., 2010, More is Better – Assessment of RASFF (2007 data review), Polish Journal of Commodity Science, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 9–13.

[31] Noël, L., Chafey, C., Testu, Ch., Pinte, J., Velge, P., Guérin, T., 2011, Contamination Levels of Lead, Cadmium and Mercury in Imported and Domestic Lobsters and LargeCrab Species Consumed in France: Differences Between White and Brown Meat, Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 368–375.

[32] Noseda, B., Tong Thi, A.N., Rosseel, L., Devlieghere, F., Jacxsens, L., 2013, Dynamics of Microbiological Quality and Safety of Vietnamese Pangasianodon hypophthalmus During Processing, Aquaculture International, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 709–727.

[33] Overbosch, P., Blanchard, S., 2014, Principles and Systems for Quality and Food Safety Management, in: Motarjemi Y., Lelieveld H. (eds.), Food Safety Management. A Practical Guide for the Food Industry, Academic Press of Elsevier, London, Waltham, San Diego, pp. 537–558.

[34] Pereira, V.L., Fernandes, J.O., Cucha, S.C., 2014, Mycotoxins in Cereals and Related Foodstuffs: A Review on Occurrence and Recent Methods of Analysis, Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 96–136.

[35] Petroczi, A., Taylor, G., Naughton, D.P., 2011, Mission Impossible? Regulatory and Enforcement Issues to Ensure Safety of Dietary Supplements, Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 393–402.

[36] Phu, T.M., Phuong, N.T., Dung, T.T., Hai, D.M., Son, V.N., Rico, A., Clausen, J.H., Madsen, H., Murray, F., Dalsgaard, A., 2015, An Evaluation of Fish Health-Management Practices and Occupational Health Hazards Associated with Pangasius Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) Aquaculture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, Aquaculture Research, viewed 16 July 2015, http://onlinelibra¬ry.¬wiley.com/doi/10.1111/are.12728/pdf.

[37] Pigłowski, M., 2015, The Correlation Analysis of Alert Notifications in the RASFF to Food from the Non-EEA Countries and from the EEA Countries, LogForum, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 237–245.

[38] Poms, R.E., Mills, C., Pöpping, B., 2010, MoniQA (Monitoring and Quality Assurance) – an EU-funded Network of Excellence (NoE) Contributing Toward a Harmonized Approach to Food Safety Management and Method Validation – Including Food Allergens, Food Analytical Methods, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 389–401.

[39] Sango, D.M., Abela, D., McElhatton, A., Valdramidis, V.P., 2014, Assisted Ultrasound Applications for the Production of Safe Foods, Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 1067–1083.

[40] Schröder, U., 2008, Challenges in the Traceability of Seafood, Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 45–48.

[41] Taylor, G., Petróczi, A., Nepusz, T., Naughton, D.P., 2013, The Procrustean Bed of EU Food Safety Notifications via the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed: Does One Size Fit All? Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 56, pp. 411–418.

[42] Uyttendaele, M., Jacxsens, L., Van Boxstael, S., 2014, Issues Surrounding the European Fresh Produce Trade: a Global Perspective, in: Hoorfar J. (ed.), Global Safety of Fresh Produce, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Sawston, pp. 33–51.

[43] Van Asselt, E.D., Meuwissen, M.P.M., Van Asseldonk, M.A.P.M., Teeuw, J., Van der Fels-Klerx, H.J., 2010, Selection of Critical Factors for Identifying Emerging Food Safety Risks in Dynamic Food Production Chains, Food Control, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 919–926.

[44] Van Boxstael, S., Habib, I., Jacxsens, L., De Vocht, M., Baert, L., Van De Perre, E., Rajkovic, A., Lopez-Galvez, F., Sampers, I., Spanoghe, P., De Meulenaer, B., Uyttendaele, M., 2013, Food Safety Issues in Fresh Produce: Bacterial Pathogens, Viruses and Pesticide Residues Indicated as Major Concerns by Stakeholders in the Fresh ProduceChain, Food Control, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 190–197.

[45] Van de Perre, E., Jacxsens, L., Lachat, C., El Tahan, F., De Meulenaer, B., 2015, Impact of Maximum Levels in European Legislation on Exposure of Mycotoxins in Dried Products: Case of Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A in Nuts and Dried Fruits, Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 75, pp. 112–117.

[46] Van der Fels-Klerx, H.J., Dekkers, S., Kandhai, M. C., Jeurissen, S.M.F., Booij, C.J.H., De Heer, C., 2010, Indicators for Early Identification of Re-emerging Mycotoxins, NJAS – Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 133–139.

[47] Wan Norhana, M.N., Poole, S.E., Deeth, H.C., Dykes, G.A., 2010, Prevalence, Persistence and Control of Salmonella and Listeria in Shrimp and Shrimp Products: A Review, Food Control, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 343–361.

[48] Zach, L., Doyle, M.E., Bier, V., Czuprynski, C., 2012, Systems and Governance in Food Import Safety: A U.S. Perspective, Food Control, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 153–162.

[49] Zhang, K., Chai, Y., Yang, S.X., Weng, D., Pre-warning Analysis and Application in Traceability Systems for Food Production Supply Chains, Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 2500–2507.

Downloads

Published

2018-06-30

How to Cite

Pigłowski, M. (2018). The Influence of Border Rejections and Official Controls on the Market on Alert Notifications in the RASFF. Scientific Journal of Gdynia Maritime University, (106), 7–22. https://doi.org/10.26408/106.01

Issue

Section

Articles